Does man need rules to be civilized
Wells was born in Bromley, England on September 21, After a limited education, he was apprenticed to a draper, but soon found he wanted something more out of life. He read widely and got a position as a student assistant in a secondary school, eventually winning a scholarship to the Royal College of Science in South Kensington, where he studied biology. He graduated from London University in and became a science teacher. He also wrote for magazines.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: EU4 1.30 EMPEROR DLC and update RELEASE DATE LEAKED!
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Europa Universalis IV - Milan (Part 8)Content:
Article : Importance of Law in Society
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Smith and Melvin Kranzberg. The field of materials is immense and diverse.
Historically, it began with the emergence of man himself, and materials gave name to the ages of civilization. Materials by themselves do nothing; yet without materials man can do nothing.
Nature itself is a self-ordered structure which developed through time by the utilization of the same properties of atomic hierarchy that man presides over in his simple constructions. One of the hallmarks of modern industrialized society is our increasing extravagance in the use of materials. We use more materials than ever before, and we use them up faster. Indeed, it has been postulated that, assuming current trends in world production and population growth, the materials requirements for the next decade and a half could equal all the materials used throughout history up to date.
See Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and William W. Not only are we consuming materials more rapidly, but we are using an increasing diversity of materials. A great new range of materials has opened up for the use of 20th-century man: refractory metals, light alloys, plastics, and synthetic fibers, for example. Some of these do better, or cheaper, what the older ones did; others have combinations of properties that enable entirely new devices to be made or quite new effects to be achieved.
We now employ in industrial processes a majority of the ninety-two elements in the periodic table which are found in nature, whereas until a century ago, all but 20, if known at all, were curiosities of the chemistry laboratory.
Our claim to a high level of materials civilization rests on this expanded, almost extravagant utilization of a rich diversity of materials. This extravagance is both a product of advances in materials and a challenge in its future growth.
The enlarged consumption of materials means that we will have to cope increasingly with natural-resource and supply problems. Mankind is being forced, therefore, to enlarge its resource base—by finding ways to employ existing raw materials more efficiently, to convert previously unusable substances to useful materials, to recycle waste materials and make them reusable, and to produce wholly new materials out of substances which are available in abundance.
The expanded demand for materials is not confined to sophisticated space ships or electronic and nuclear devices. In most American kitchens are new heat-shock-proof glasses and ceramics—and long-life electric elements to heat them; the motors in electric appliances have so-called oilless bearings which actually hold a lifetime supply of oil, made possible by powder metallurgy; the pocket camera uses new compositions of coated optical glass; office copy-machines depend on photoconductors; toy soldiers are formed out of plastics, not lead; boats are molded out of fiberglass; the humble garbage can sounds off with a plastic thud rather than a metallic clank; we sleep on synthetic foam mattresses and polyfiber pillows, instead of cotton and wool stuffing and feathers; we are scarcely aware of how many objects of everyday life have been transformed—and in most cases, improved—by the application of materials science and engineering MSE.
Moreover, as with a rich vocabulary in literature, the flexibility that is engendered by MSE greatly increases the options in substitutions of one material for another. Quite often the development of a new materials or process will have effects far beyond what the originators expected.
Materials have somewhat the quality of letters in the alphabet in that they can be used to compose many things larger than themselves; amber, gold jewelry, and iron ore inspired commerce and the discovery of many parts of the world; improvements in optical glass lies behind all the knowledge revealed by the microscope; conductors, insulators, and semiconductors were needed to construct new communication systems which today affect the thought, work, and play of everyone.
Alloy steel permitted the development of the automobile; titanium the space program. The finding of a new material was essential for the growth of the. Sir George P.
In these, as in hundreds of other cases, the materials themselves are soon taken for granted, just as are the letters of a word.
The transitions from, say, stone to bronze and from bronze to iron were revolutionary in impact, but they were relatively slow in terms of the time scale. The changes in materials innovation and application within the last half century occur in a time span which is revolutionary rather than evolutionary.
The materials revolution of our times is qualitative as well as quantitative. It breeds the attitude of purposeful creativity rather than modification of natural materials, and also a new approach—an innovative organization of science and technology. The combination of these elements which constitutes materials science and engineering MSE is characterized by a new language of science and engineering, by new tools for research, by a new approach to the structure and properties of materials of all kinds, by a new interdependence of scientific research and technical development, and by a new coupling of scientific endeavor with societal needs.
As a field, MSE is young. There is still no professional organization embodying all of its aspects, and there is even some disagreement as to what constitutes the field. One of the elements which is newest about it is the notion of purposive creation. However, MSE is responsive as well as creative.
Not only does it create new materials, sometimes before their possible uses are recognized, but it responds to new and different needs of our sophisticated and complex industrial society.
Almost magically, it transmutes base materials, not into gold—although it can produce gold-looking substances—but into substances which are of greater use and benefit to mankind than this precious metal. Not only is MSE postulated on the linkage of science and technology, it draws together different fields within science and engineering.
From technology, MSE brings metallurgists, ceramists, electrical engineers, chemical engineers; from science it embraces physicists, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, crystallographers, and various specialists within those major fields.
In its development, MSE not only involved cooperation among different branches of science and engineering, but also collaboration among different kinds of organizations. In recent years there has been a marked increase in the liaison between industrial production and industrial research, and between research in industry and that in the universities. The researcher cannot ignore problems of production, and the producer knows that he can get from the scientist. It should be noticed that MSE has come about by the aggregation of several different specialties that were earlier separate, not, as so often happens, by growth of increased diversity within a field which keeps some cohesion.
This change is just as much on the industrial side as it is on the academic. Industry continually uses its old production capabilities on new materials, and the scientist finds himself forced to look at a different scale of aggregation of matter. Most of the work on materials until the 20th century was aimed at making the old materials available in greater quantity, of better quality, or at less cost. The new world in which materials are developed for specific purposes usually by persons who are concerned with end-use rather than with the production of the materials themselves introduces a fundamental change, indeed.
MSE interacts particularly well with engineers who have some application in mind. The provision of materials for school children and mature artists is one of the more positive contacts with the public, Of course, most materials existed long before MSE aided in their development, but now it does provide the guidelines for future change.
Unless we limit our scope, all matter in the universe will inadvertently be encompassed within the scope of our survey. But matter is not the same as material.
Mainly we are concerned with materials that are to become part of a device or structure or product made by. The science part of MSE seeks to discover, analyze and understand the nature of materials, to provide coherent explanations of the origin of the properties that are used, while the engineering aspect takes this basic knowledge and whatever else is necessary not the least of which is experience to develop, prepare, and apply materials for specified needs, often the most advanced objectives of the times.
It is the necessarily intimate relationship between these disparate activities that to some extent distinguishes MSE from other fields and which makes it so fascinating for its practitioners. The benefits come not only from the production of age-old materials in greater quantities and with less cost—an aspect which has perhaps the most visible influence on the modern world, but it also involves the production of materials with totally new properties.
Both of these contributions have changed the economy and social structure, and both have come about in large measure through the application of a mixture of theoretical and empirical science with entrepreneurship. And just as the development of mathematical principles of design enabled the 19th-century engineer to test available materials and select the best suited for his constructions, so the deeper understanding of the structural basis of materials has given the scientist a viewpoint applicable to all materials, and at every stage from their manufacture to their societal use and ultimate return to earth.
The production of materials has always been accompanied by some form of pollution, but this only became a problem when industrialization and population enormously increased the scale of operation. The simple fact is that an industrial civilization represents more activity, more production, and usually more pollution, even though the pollution attributable to each unit produced may be sharply decreased.
The utilization of materials, as well as their manufacture, also generates pollution. Proposals for reuse or recycling often founder upon public apathy—but this is changing, and MSE has an important role to play. The moral and spiritual impact of materials on both consumer and producer is both less visible and more debatable. To those reared in a Puritanical ethic of self-denial, the outpouring of materials goods would seem almost sinful, as would the waste products of a throw-away society.
Such conspicuous consumption would seem almost immoral in a world where so many people are still lacking basic material essentials. A more sophisticated objection might be that the very profusion of materials presents modern man with psychological dilemmas. We are presented with so many options that we. It might be surprising to some that the question of the debasement of the materials producer should even be raised.
Scientists have long claimed that their pursuit of an understanding of nature is innocent, and technologists have always assumed that their gifts of materials plenty to mankind would be welcomed. Hence, it has come as a shock to them during the past few years that the benefits of science and technology have been questioned.
To those engaged in materials production and fabrication, it may be disconcerting to realize that for a fair fraction of human history their activities have been viewed with suspicion and downright distaste by social thinkers and by the general public. The ancient Greek philosophers, who set the tone for many of the attitudes still prevalent throughout Western Civilization, regarded those involved in the production of material goods as being less worthy than agriculturists and others who did not perform such mundane tasks.
Greek mythology provided a basis for this disdain: the Greek Gods were viewed as idealistic models of physical perfection; the only flawed immortal was the patron god of the metalworker, Hephaestus, whose lameness made him the butt of jokes among his Olympian colleagues, But he got along well with Aphrodite, another producer!
Throughout ancient society the most menial tasks, especially those of mining and metallurgy, were left to slaves. Hence, the common social attitude of antiquity, persisting to this day in some intellectual circles, was to look down upon those who worked with their hands. For these arts damage the bodies of those who work at them or who act as overseers, by compelling them to a sedentary life and to an indoor life, and, in some cases, to spend the whole day by the fire.
This physical degeneration results also in deterioration of the soul. Furthermore, the workers at these trades simply have not got the time to perform the offices of friendship or citizenship. Consequently they are looked upon as bad friends and bad patriots, and in some cities, especially the warlike ones, it is not legal for a citizen to ply a mechanical trade. There is a formidable literature of anti-science and anti-technology. Not only are there the attacks of the counter-culture represented by the writings of Theodore Roszak, Paul Goodman, and Herbert Marcuse , but more thoughtful observers, such as Lewis Mumford, have attacked the spirit and practice of science and technology in the modern world.
The ancients appreciated material goods but they did not think highly of those who actually produced them.
But there is yet a subtler way in which the triumphs of MSE might threaten the spirit of Western man. Advances in materials have gone beyond the simple task of conquering nature and mastering the environment. MSE attempts to improve upon nature. In a sense, this represents the ancient Greek sin of hubris , inordinate pride, where men thought they could rival or even excel the gods—and retribution from the gods followed inevitably.
By eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge, Adam thought that he would know as much as God. Conceivably, by endeavoring to outdo nature modern man is preparing his own fall. Or perhaps his new knowledge will lead to control as well as power, and a richer life for mankind. The very essence of a cultural development is its interrelatedness.
This survey places emphasis on materials, but it should be obvious that materials per se are of little value unless they are shaped into a form that permits man to make or do something useful, or one that he finds delightful to touch or to contemplate. The material simply permits things to be done because of its bulk, its strength or, in more recent times, its varied combinations of physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. We do not know exactly when our present human species, homo sapiens, came into being, but we do know that materials must have played a part in the evolution of man from more primitive forms of animal primates.
It was the interaction of biological material and cultural processes that differentiated man from the rest of the animal world. Nevertheless, man possesses certain anatomical features which prove particularly useful in enabling him to deal with his environment. See V.
Looking for other ways to read this?
In this excerpt from The Rights of Man , here Thomas Paine argues that the order naturally observed in human society is not the result of government. Great part of that order which reigns among mankind is not the effect of government. It has its origin in the principles of society and the natural constitution of man. It existed prior to government, and would exist if the formality of government was abolished. The mutual dependence and reciprocal interest which man has upon man, and all the parts of civilised community upon each other, create that great chain of connection which holds it together.
Username or Email Address. There is a tendency on the part of many theists to assume that the burden of proof is on the nontheist when it comes to the issue of morality. In our culture, people are so accustomed to the idea of every law having a lawmaker, every rule having an enforcer, every institution having someone in authority, and so forth, that the thought of something being otherwise has the ring of chaos to it. Furthermore, it is often argued that, if everyone tried to live in such a fashion, no agreement on morals would be possible and there would be no way to adjudicate disputes between people, no defense of a particular moral stand being possible in the absence of some absolute point of reference. But all of this is based on certain unchallenged assumptions of the theistic moralist — assumptions that are frequently the product of faulty analogies.
Of Society and Civilization
Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book. Shop for Books on Google Play Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Kent Carter. Ancestry Publishing , - Social Science - pages. The historian, the academician, the sociologist, and the genealogist--all will find it a vital work.
Вы точно человек?
In response to this, Malinowski began to devote much attention to the analysis of war, from its development throughout history to its disastrous manifestations at the start of the Second World War. This book will be of interest to students of politics and history. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search.
No eBook available CengageBrain. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book.
Law and the Rule of Law
No eBook available CengageBrain. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search.
We shall overcome this soon. Our Team is working from Home without any disruption in providing you content. Stay Safe! Recovered: 23, Casualties: 2,
The Human Basis Of Laws And Ethics
Madison Siegel. English 2. What makes a person civilized or savage? How do the things that happen to a person affect their actions? Some people think that things happen to them for a reason. Some people wait to see what the future holds and then make their decisions based off of that.
Western Civilization. Jackson J. Best-selling author Jackson Spielvogel helped over one million students learn about the present by exploring the past. Spielvogel's engaging, chronological narrative weaves the political, economic, social, religious, intellectual, cultural, and military aspects of history into a gripping story that is as memorable as it is instructive.
How many times a day does someone tell you what to do? How often do you have to stop yourself from doing what you want, because you know that this action is prohibited or wrong? In the United States, it seems like we have laws, rules, and regulations to oversee just about everything.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Smith and Melvin Kranzberg. The field of materials is immense and diverse.