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Find odd man out with respect to chemoautotrophs

Question 1: What are the basic requirements of photosynthesis? Answer: The basic requirements of photosynthesis are:. Question 2: i Where are the chlorophyll pigments present in a cell. Answer: i In the cell organelle called plastids or chloroplasts. Question 3: Give some adaptations in a green leaf for photosynthesis. Answer: i A large surface area to absorb water.

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A bit of 4-billion-year-old rock blasted off the Martian surface about 15 million years ago and eventually landed in Antarctica , where explorers found it in In the decades since, organic compounds found in that meteorite have been sources of controversy: Did they come from Mars, or did the meteorites get contaminated on Earth?

Now, a team of Japanese researchers has reexamined the meteorites, and say they found traces of ancient oceans, rich in useful carbon and nitrogen — key ingredients for life. The meteorite, known as Allan Hills , after the location where it was first discovered, has long been known to contain organic materials. The hunk of space rock has been the subject of paper after paper after paper debating whether those materials came from Earth or Mars. There's even been a controversial claim, as Live Science sister site Space.

The trouble was that researchers could never rule out the possibility that organic molecules from Antarctica got mixed up with the meteorites during their centuries locked in ice. Alternatively, the meteorite could have been contaminated with organic matter in a laboratory. Related: 50 amazing facts about Antarctica.

But now the researchers have taken extraordinary pains to rule out those possibilities. Their results suggest the organic compounds come from Mars — and for the first time show the meteor also contains nitrogen-bearing organic materials. These newly-discovered organic nitrogen compounds in the carbonate suggest that if life did exist on Mars, it would have had access to the same forms of nitrogen that Earthly life relies on.

Together, the researchers wrote in the paper, which was published April 24 in the journal Nature Communications , these findings amount to the signature of an groundwater environment with plenty of potentially life-giving organic material. The researchers studied the meteorites in a "class clean lab," an environment where everyone wears head-to-toe bodysuits and the airflow is controlled to keep particulates from floating around.

Typically, such labs are used when manufacturing delicate advanced technologies like spacecraft or certain pharmaceuticals. Past research into Allan Hills , such as a study in the journal Advances in Space Research that argued the organics likely came from Mars, took place in more typical laboratory environments. In their ultraclean environment, the scientists peeled off tiny grains of carbonate — the compound in the 4-billion-year-old meteorites. Then, they blasted the surfaces of the grains with a beam of focused charged molecules, or ions, to remove surface contaminants.

The material underneath that surface layer, the researchers argued, represents a close approximation of the chemicals inside the meteorites before they were exposed to Earth. They found levels of organic nitrogen far higher than could easily be explained by contamination from Antarctic ice, suggesting the nitrogen-bearing organic material entered the rock as it formed. The carbonate in Allan Hills formed in water, researchers believe. On Earth, carbonates like limestone and calcite are also the dried-out remnants of old water sources.

Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the organic nitrogen compounds were plentiful in early Martian oceans. That's important because "nitrogen is an essential element for all life on Earth, as it is necessary for protein, DNA, RNA and other vital materials," the researchers wrote. These results fit with other evidence from the Red Planet.

But rover instruments can't do the battery of tests that an Earthbound laboratory can,, so the rover data doesn't tell scientists where the organic compounds came from, how old they are or how they formed. This research, if borne out, suggests that at one point, when Mars was covered in oceans, those oceans flowed with organic matter. All of that said, organic materials form in many lifeless places in the solar system, most notably comets.

There's even evidence for organic material in the dust floating between stars, Space. So whether these apparent ancient, organic-rich oceans on Mars ever hosted life is still a mystery. Originally published on Live Science. View Deal. Live Science. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer.

Pieces of Mars made their way across the solar system to Antarctica, where they were discovered in the s. See all comments 9. Three points. If true, where did the organic matter go? To date, there have been no findings of any organic cellular remains by any of the rovers.

No photosynthesis? This is interesting! Not least because ALH was buried close to the subsurface for a very long time and so points to early organics survival that Perseverance may find. The nitrogen chemistry points to a more pH neutral environment at the time, which is also promising. Broadlands said:. Early organics survival? That implies the presence of early life.

Those same conditions exist today on Mars. Photosynthesis requires both the visible spectrum and UV protection. Yes, it is derived, but from a last common ancestor that was both a hyperthermophile and a minimal oxygen requiring microaerophile Hydrothermal vents?

Very problematic with respect to the evolution of peptide and nucleotide bond formation. Both require the input of energy snd the removal of water. Repeated wetting and drying needed for primitive chain extension and growth.

Given the negative results of the rovers to find any evidence of organic cellular remains, the possibility of life on Mars, going back billions of years ago is remote. There are not even any gray or black shales that would be expected had organic matter been present, survived and accumulated. Nothing but sandstone and silts devoid of biological carbon. A dried out iron oxide formed from precursor ferric oxyhydroxides that have lost their water.

What are the rules when playing with probability? We use probability for quantum mechanics and cosmic creation measurements. There is a consensus of this science. But the environment and time needed to probably evolve a protein is non-existent. But we still insist on life as evolving. And try to prove it. Probability Numbers be damned. If probability did not evolve life, what did? Alien visitors? Was life seeded? They had a huge catalog of seeds. Obviously a certain environment is needed, or other life would be detected.

The alien visitors must have a lot of propulsion, time and patience to find such spots. How else could one possibly explain life? It should be unnecessary to point out that using a 'catalog of seeds' as an argument only moves the problem and its location to some other planet.

Hayseed said:. TorbjornLarsson said:.

Solved Examples(Set 1) - Series - Odd Man Out

By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. You can refuse to use cookies by setting the necessary parameters in your browser. Math , The area of a rhombus is 84m sq. Answers: 1.

A bit of 4-billion-year-old rock blasted off the Martian surface about 15 million years ago and eventually landed in Antarctica , where explorers found it in In the decades since, organic compounds found in that meteorite have been sources of controversy: Did they come from Mars, or did the meteorites get contaminated on Earth?

Green [3] and stars James Mason and Robert Newton. It followed upon wartime action by the IRA in Belfast, in consequence of which Northern Ireland undertook its first and only execution of an Irish Republican , year old Tom Williams. The film's opening intertitle reads: "This story is told against a background of political unrest in a city of Northern Ireland. It is not concerned with the struggle between the law and an illegal organisation, but only with the conflict in the hearts of the people when they become unexpectedly involved. The city and the organisation are never explicitly named.

Odd Man Out

Postgate Cambridge University Press , Sep 28, - Science - pages 0 Reviews The invisible world of microbes--capable of surviving in the most harsh and inhospitable conditions on earth--reveals the remarkable potential and resilience of life itself. John Postgate's fascinating exploration of these outer reaches of life shows how understanding microbes can provide new clues to the origin and evolution of terrestrial life, and offers glimpses of how life might have established itself elsewhere in the Universe. In the process, it raises profound questions about death, sensation and individuality, and insights into the nature of scientific progress. The feats of modern biotechnology are just one manifestation of the astonishing resources of microbes illuminated in John Postgate's lucid and intriguing account. Twenty-five years ago, Postgate wrote a well- received Read full review. Science essayists usually write on natural phenomenon that are observable animal behavior or subjects that are widely reported, such as DNA. Postgate, author of the classic Microbes and Man Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search.

ICSE Solutions for Class 10 Biology – Photosynthesis

A Leaf done clear. B Nodes done clear. C Stem done clear. D Roots done clear.

In every competitive exam, Odd Man Out type questions are very common. In odd man out problems all the items given in the question except one follow a certain pattern or a group.

To save this word, you'll need to log in. Log In Definition of odd man out : a person who differs from the other members of a group Examples of odd man out in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Michigan State seems destined for New York, and several projections have Eastern Michigan as the odd man out for bowl season there are 79 bowl-eligible teams for 78 slots. Lille in Champions League," 2 Oct.

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Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Bacteria, Bacteriophages, and Fungi Volume 1.

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Origin of earth dates back to 1 10,—15, million years ago 2 — million years ago 3 — million years ago 4 — million years ago Sol. Who finally refuted the theory of spontaneous generation and experimentally disproved it? Answer 3 Louis Pasteur disproved it by Swan neck experiment. An experiment to prove that organic compounds were the basis of life, was performed by 1 Van Helmont 2 Oparin 3 S. Miller 4 Fox Sol.

Bacteria, Bacteriophages, and Fungi

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Hydrothermal activity can generate numerous and diverse hydrocarbon compounds. However, little is known about the influence of such hydrocarbons on deep-sea hydrothermal microbial ecology. We hypothesize that certain bacteria live on these hydrocarbons. Therefore, in this study, the distribution of hydrocarbons and their associated hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were investigated at deep-sea hydrothermal vents at the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the East Pacific Rise.

questions carrying one mark each. 1) For each MCO, correct (c) Calvin cycle (d) Glycolysis. (vii) Find the odd man out with respect to chemoautotrophs.

The unique geochemistry of marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems promotes the establishment of diverse microbial communities with a range of metabolic pathways. In contrast to deep-sea vents, shallow-water vents not only support chemosynthesis, but also phototrophic primary production due to the availability of light. However, comprehensive studies targeting the predominant biogeochemical processes are rare, and consequently a holistic understanding of the functioning of these ecosystems is currently lacking. To this end, we combined stable isotope probing of lipid biomarkers with an analysis of the bacterial communities to investigate if chemoautotrophy, in parallel to photoautotrophy, plays an important role in autotrophic carbon fixation and to identify the key players. Analysis of the bacterial diversity revealed Anaerolineae of the Chloroflexi as the most abundant bacterial class.

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Scientists discover evidence of ancient, nitrogen-rich Martian groundwater hiding in Antarctica



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